Take a deeper look into all the publications produced by researchers at The Dartmouth Institute.

Beckwith JG, Zhao W, Ji S, Ajamil AG, Bolander RP, Chu JJ, McAllister TW, Crisco JJ, Duma SM, Rowson S, Broglio SP, Guskiewicz KM, Mihalik JP, Anderson S, Schnebel B, Gunnar Brolinson P, Collins MW, Greenwald RM

2018 Feb 22;doi: 10.1007/s10439-018-1999-5

Kinematic measurements of head impacts are sensitive to sports concussion, but not highly specific. One potential reason is these measures reflect input conditions only and may have varying degrees of correlation to regional brain tissue deformation. In this study, previously reported head impact data recorded in the field from high school and collegiate football players were analyzed using two finite element head models (FEHM). Forty-five impacts associated with immediately diagnosed concussion were simulated along with 532 control impacts without identified concussion obtained from the same players. For each simulation, intracranial response measures (max principal strain, strain rate, von Mises stress, and pressure) were obtained for the whole brain and within four regions of interest (ROI; cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, corpus callosum). All response measures were sensitive to diagnosed concussion; however, large inter-athlete variability was observed and sensitivity strength depended on measure, ROI, and FEHM. Interestingly, peak linear acceleration was more sensitive to diagnosed concussion than all intracranial response measures except pressure. These findings suggest FEHM may provide unique and potentially important information on brain injury mechanisms, but estimations of concussion risk based on individual intracranial response measures evaluated in this study did not improve upon those derived from input kinematics alone.

Ann Biomed Eng|2018 Feb 22

Marsicovetere P

2018 Mar;31(3):32-37doi: 10.1097/01.JAA.0000530294.08033.66

Anorectal pain and discomfort are common complaints in the general population, and can stem from a number of possible causes. Often, the complaints present in the primary care setting and can be adequately evaluated, diagnosed, and treated without the need for referral to a colorectal specialist. Proper evaluation and diagnosis can result in prompt, effective patient care. Recognition of red flags should prompt immediate referral to a colorectal specialist for further evaluation.

JAAPA|2018 Mar

Whedon JM, Toler AWJ, Goehl JM, Kazal LA

2018 Feb 22;doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0131

Pain relief resulting from services delivered by doctors of chiropractic may allow patients to use lower or less frequent doses of opioids, leading to reduced risk of adverse effects. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the association between utilization of chiropractic services and the use of prescription opioid medications.

J Altern Complement Med|2018 Feb 22

Erdodi LA, Sagar S, Seke K, Zuccato BG, Schwartz ES, Roth RM

2018 Feb 22;doi: 10.1037/pas0000525

This study was designed to develop performance validity indicators embedded within the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems (D-KEFS) version of the Stroop task. Archival data from a mixed clinical sample of 132 patients (50% male; M= 43.4; M= 14.1) clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment were analyzed. Criterion measures included the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words and 2 composites based on several independent validity indicators. An age-corrected scaled score ≤6 on any of the 4 trials reliably differentiated psychometrically defined credible and noncredible response sets with high specificity (.87-.94) and variable sensitivity (.34-.71). An inverted Stroop effect was less sensitive (.14-.29), but comparably specific (.85-90) to invalid performance. Aggregating the newly developed D-KEFS Stroop validity indicators further improved classification accuracy. Failing the validity cutoffs was unrelated to self-reported depression or anxiety. However, it was associated with elevated somatic symptom report. In addition to processing speed and executive function, the D-KEFS version of the Stroop task can function as a measure of performance validity. A multivariate approach to performance validity assessment is generally superior to univariate models. (PsycINFO Database Record

Psychol Assess|2018 Feb 22

Vedam S, Stoll K, MacDorman M, Declercq E, Cramer R, Cheyney M, Fisher T, Butt E, Yang YT, Powell Kennedy H

2018;13(2):e0192523doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192523

Our multidisciplinary team examined published regulatory data to inform a 50-state database describing the environment for midwifery practice and interprofessional collaboration. Items (110) detailed differences across jurisdictions in scope of practice, autonomy, governance, and prescriptive authority; as well as restrictions that can affect patient safety, quality, and access to maternity providers across birth settings. A nationwide survey of state regulatory experts (n = 92) verified the 'on the ground' relevance, importance, and realities of local interpretation of these state laws. Using a modified Delphi process, we selected 50/110 key items to include in a weighted, composite Midwifery Integration Scoring (MISS) system. Higher scores indicate greater integration of midwives across all settings. We ranked states by MISS scores; and, using reliable indicators in the CDC-Vital Statistics Database, we calculated correlation coefficients between MISS scores and maternal-newborn outcomes by state, as well as state density of midwives and place of birth. We conducted hierarchical linear regression analysis to control for confounding effects of race.

PLoS One|2018

Diffenbaugh NS, Singh D, Mankin JS

2018 Feb;4(2):eaao3354doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao3354

The United Nations Paris Agreement creates a specific need to compare consequences of cumulative emissions for pledged national commitments and aspirational targets of 1.5° to 2°C global warming. We find that humans have already increased the probability of historically unprecedented hot, warm, wet, and dry extremes, including over 50 to 90% of North America, Europe, and East Asia. Emissions consistent with national commitments are likely to cause substantial and widespread additional increases, including more than fivefold for warmest night over ~50% of Europe and >25% of East Asia and more than threefold for wettest days over >35% of North America, Europe, and East Asia. In contrast, meeting aspirational targets to keep global warming below 2°C reduces the area experiencing more than threefold increases to <10% of most regions studied. However, large areas-including >90% of North America, Europe, East Asia, and much of the tropics-still exhibit sizable increases in the probability of record-setting hot, wet, and/or dry events.

Sci Adv|2018 Feb

Weeks WB, Goertz CM, Long CR, Meeker WC, Marchiori DM

2018 Feb 15;pii: S0161-4754(17)30293-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.12.003

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between self-reported use of opioids by patients with neck and back pain and their demographics, pain characteristics, treatment preferences, and recollections of their physicians' opinions regarding treatment options.

J Manipulative Physiol Ther|2018 Feb 15

Rodriguez-Garcia M, Fortier JM, Barr FD, Wira CR

2018 Feb 18;doi: 10.1111/acel.12733

As women age, susceptibility to systemic and genital infections increases. Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) are CD103CD8long-lived lymphocytes that provide critical mucosal immune protection. Mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) are known to induce CD103 expression on CD8T cells. While CD103CD8T cells are found throughout the female reproductive tract (FRT), the extent to which aging impacts their presence and induction by DCs remains unknown. Using hysterectomy tissues, we found that endometrial CD103CD8T cells were increased in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women. Endometrial DCs from postmenopausal women were significantly more effective at inducing CD103 expression on allogeneic naïve CD8T cells than DCs from premenopausal women; CD103 upregulation was mediated through membrane-bound TGFβ signaling. In contrast, cervical CD103T cells and DC numbers declined in postmenopausal women with age. Decreases in DCs correlated with decreased CD103T cells in endocervix, but not ectocervix. Our findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized compartmentalization of TRMs in the FRT of postmenopausal women, with loss of TRMs and DCs in the cervix with aging, and increased TRMs and DC induction capacity in the endometrium. These findings are relevant to understanding immune protection in the FRT and to the design of vaccines for women of all ages.

Aging Cell|2018 Feb 18

Shajani-Yi Z, de Abreu FB, Peterson JD, Tsongalis GJ

2018 Feb 13;20(3):256-262doi: 10.1016/j.neo.2017.12.005

The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. It encodes p53, a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates multiple genes involved in DNA repair, metabolism, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. TP53 is associated with human cancer by mutations that lead to a loss of wild-type p53 function as well as mutations that confer alternate oncogenic functions that enable them to promote invasion, metastasis, proliferation, and cell survival. Identifying the discrete TP53 mutations in tumor cells may help direct therapies that are more effective. In this study, we identified the frequency of individual TP53 mutations in patients with colon adenocarcinoma (48%), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (36%), and glioma/glioblastoma (28%) at our institution using next-generation sequencing. We also identified the occurrence of somatic mutations in numerous actionable genes including BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, IDH1, and PIK3CA that occurred concurrently with these TP53 mutations. Of the 480 tumors examined that contained one or more mutations in the TP53 gene, 219 were colon adenocarcinomas, 215 were NSCLCs, and 46 were gliomas/glioblastomas. Among the patients positive for TP53 mutations diagnosed with colon adenocarcinoma, 50% also showed at least one mutation in pathogenic genes of which 14% were BRAF, 33% were KRAS, and 3% were NRAS. Forty-seven percent of NSCLC patients harboring TP53 mutations also had a mutation in at least one actionable pathogenic variant with the following frequencies: BRAF: 4%, EGFR: 10%, KRAS: 28%, and PIK3CA: 4%. Fifty-two percent of patients diagnosed with glioma/glioblastoma with a positive TP53 mutation had at least one concurrent mutation in a known pathogenic gene of which 9% were CDKN2A, 41% were IDH1, and 11% were PIK3CA.

Neoplasia|2018 Feb 13

Tillmann S, Awwad HM, Eskelund AR, Treccani G, Geisel J, Wegener G, Obeid R

2018 Feb 17;doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201701070

Probiotics may influence one-carbon (C1) metabolism, neurotransmitters, liver function markers, or behavior.

Mol Nutr Food Res|2018 Feb 17


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